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Both of these conditions increase the risk posed by air pollution, especially particulate matter. Proposed Identification of Environmental Tobacco Smoke as a Toxic Air Contaminant. Childhood Lead Poisoning Associated with Lead Dust Contamination of Family Vehicles and Child Safety Seats - maine, 2008. Traffic Density in California: Socioeconomic and Ethnic Differences among Potentially Exposed Children. Common Household Activities are associated with Elevated Particulate matter Concentrations in Bedrooms of Inner-City Baltimore Pre-School Children. Cumulative Cancer Risk from Air Pollution in Houston: Disparities in Risk Burden and Social Disadvantage. Cancer Risk Disparities between Hispanic and NonHispanic White Populations: the Role of Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution. Pollution Prevention Practices for Nail Salons: A Guide to Protect the Health of Nail Salon Workers and their Working Environment. However, it occurs at disproportionately higher rates among some ethnic and racial populations. Scientists have proposed varying explanations for the high rates of asthma in some ethnic and racial populations. Results indicate that there are different types of asthma that vary according to ancestry. These all present in a unique manner in for each racial and ethnic group, including Caucasians. Others include the number of asthma-related environmental factors, the different levels of exposure possible, and the many interactions between these factors and genetic influences. This relationship remained true even when accounting for a number of factors including school district income levels, other household members with asthma, type of Figure 2: Current Asthma Prevalence Rates by Race/Ethnicity, 2008 school, age, gender, and language preferences. This suggests that differing and tailored approaches may be needed for African Americans and Caucasians with asthma to improve treatment adherence and, ultimately, health outcomes. These differences support further research into the effects of acculturation, migration, environment, and psychosocial factors on asthma development. The researchers suggested that requiring all insurers to provide asthma management plans might decrease this disparity and the overall burden of asthma. However, small sample sizes mean the estimates are not statistically accurate so they are not published or released as their own category. They concluded that Filipinos have the highest rate of ever being diagnosed with asthma (19.

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Due to its durability and heat resistance, asbestos was once widely used in shingles, fireproofing, heating systems, and floor and ceiling tiles. Inhaling asbestos increases the risk of developing lung cancer or mesothelioma, a deadly cancer of the thin lining surrounding the lungs and other organs. The risk depends on levels of exposure, how long ago exposure occurred and whether a person also smokes. Most asbestos-associated cancers are related to the intensity and duration of the exposure. Those most vulnerable include children, the elderly and people with chronic lung disease. For example, people who suffer from asthma may experience periodic attacks of breathing difficulty and lung inflammation, often in response to environmental irritants. Racial/ Ethnic Differences AfricanAmericans African Americans experience multiple negative health effects from indoor and outdoor air pollution. Numerous studies have documented the disproportionate burden of exposure to air toxics and risk that falls on minority and low-income populations. In addition, the estimated cancer risk decreased for every 10 percent increase in the percentage of Caucasians living in an area. Having a low income also increased the risk among African Americans more so than among Caucasians. A recent study conducted in and around Houston provided evidence of ethnic and social disparities in exposure to hazardous air pollution. Among Hispanics, the risk of developing asthma was twice that for Caucasian children. A study focusing on specific childhood populations found a broad range AmericanLungAssociationStateofLungDiseaseinDiverseCommunities2010 31 Figure 5: Lifetime Asthma Prevalence Rates among Asian Americans, California, 2007 Filipinos Vietnamese Race/Ethnicity Japanese Chinese South Asians Koreans 5. Analysts often group Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders with Native Americans into the category of "Other Races. Racial Disparities in Asthma-Related Health Outcomes in Severe or Difficultto-Treat Asthma. Race-Ethnic Differences in Factors Associated with Inhaled Steroid Adherence among Adults with Asthma. Racian/Ethnic Differences in Asthma Prevalence: the Role of Housing and Neighborhood Environments. Unique symptoms of chronic bronchitis are increased mucus and frequent clearing of the throat, while limited exercise tolerance is a common symptom of emphysema. A review of all African American and Caucasian lung transplant patients between 1995 and 2005 found that African Americans and Caucasians with private insurance had similar and favorable chances of receiving a lung transplant. The age-adjusted death rate among Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander men (21. However, estimates are not considered statistically accurate and are not published or released because of small sample sizes. National Center for Health Statistics: National Health Interview Survey Raw Data, 2008.

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Rationale: There are variations at the angiogenesis plasma biomarker level in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with an anti-angiogenic molecule such as sorafenib. This should allow us to characterise the profile of these biomarkers after radioembolisation (1) and to identify the predictive factors of radioembolisation efficacy as compared with sorafenib in this randomised trial. Date: 13/12/2016 (2) Plasma biomarkers as predictors of outcome in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Response rates after radioembolisation vary from 39% to 61%, with an average survival rate of 2 to 14 months (1,2). The wide variation in these results is probably due to the different histological characteristics of these tumours, on the one hand, and to the differences in the tumour masses treated, on the other. Indeed, low tumour mass (< 25%) is associated with longer survival after radioembolisation. The pre- and posttreatment scans will be done using the same equipment at each site. We will calculate the percentage change in the followup image taken three months after the initial test. A decrease of 30% or more will be considered a positive metabolic response (responsive patient). A decrease of less than 30% or an increase in the size of the lesion or the appearance of a new lesion will be considered a negative metabolic response (non-responsive patient). Local analysis of the scan by an investigator specialising in nuclear medicine Opinion concerning the quality of the scan d. A retrospective comparative analysis of the effect of Y90-radioembolization on the survival of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma using Yttrium-90 microspheres: a comprehensive report of long-term outcomes. The objective of this research project is to study the relationships between the intratissue iodine concentration measured by spectral acquisition and the perfusion parameters related to the variations in iodine concentration in the tissue. In the end, if a correlation were to be found, it could simplify anti-angiogenic treatment follow-up by making it possible to use iodine maps, whose methods of acquisition are simpler to incorporate into routine clinical practices, more often in spectral imaging. Data processing proposal: - Comparison of tumour and liver perfusion maps with the maps of the iodine distribution obtained in the spectral imaging cartography. Since participation in these two ancillary studies is optional, confirmation of patient agreement will be requested for each ancillary study on the consent form. Any decision concerning the scientific and medical conduct of the trial, particularly a decision for early termination or extension, reassessment of the trial patient numbers, etc.

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Fibrosis and calcifications: the response T-cell mediated immune induces hypersetivity to the organisms and controls 95% of primary infection. Such persons lack the capacity to coordinate integrated hypersensitivity and cellmediated immune responses to the organism and thus often lack the capacity to contain the infection. Granulomas are poorly formed or not 55 Pathophysiology formed at all, and infection progresses at the primary site in the lung, the regional lymph nodes or at multiple sites of disseminations. Progressive primary tuberculosis pneumonia: Commonly seen in children less than five years of age but it occurs in adults as mentioned in those with suppressed or defective immunity. Pleural effusion: Sub pleural focus may discharge bacilli or antigen into the pleural cavity resulting in the development of pleural effusion. Hilar or mediastinal groups of lymph nodes may be enlarged with caseous necrosis that may result in: Obstruction of the bronchus by the enlarged lymph-nodes leading to lobar collapse. Pathophysiology the bacillus is acid fast obligate intracellular organism that does not grow in culture and it grows best at 32-34 degree centigrade of the temperature of human skin. The bacillus produce potentially destructive granulomas or by interference with the metabolism of cells and thereby 57 the teeth. Pathophysiology macrophages, disseminate through the blood but grows only relatively on cool tissues of the skin and extremities. Two forms of the disease occur depending on weather the host mounts a T-cell mediated immune response (tuberculoid leprosy) or is anergic (lepromatous leprosy). Patients with tuberculoid leprosy form granuloma with few surviving bacteria (paucibaccilary disease). A) Hypersensitivity Reactions Definition Hypersensitivity reactions refer to exaggerated response of immune system to an antigen (foreign body). The purpose of the immune response is to protect against invasion by foreign organisms, but they often lead to tissue damage. Thus, an immune response that results in tissue injury is broadly referred to as a hypersensitivity reaction. Susceptibility to allergy is inherited and may result from excessive IgE-production. Pathophysiology the immune response is activated when antigen binds to IgE antibodies attached to the surface of mast cells Mast cells are found in connective tissue, skin, and mucus membranes. Reddening and indurations of the site begins with in 12-72hours - Example Contact Dermatitis A common allergic skin reaction It is a T-cell response with a delayed reaction It occurs on contact with certain common household chemicals, cosmetics and plant toxins. Classifications 64 Pathophysiology Deficiencies of specific immune response are divided into primary and secondary types. Primary immunodeficiency diseases:Are those disorders which usually manifest in early childhood and there is a good evident that the disease is genetically determined.

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Even though less risk is involved with male sterilization, less than 1% of both men and women reported using this as a primary method of contraception. In some cases, condom use among men is associated with them having extramarital relations. Low reported numbers of condom use, 3% for men and 27 a slightly more than 1% for women, suggests that this is not a highly preferred method (Ezeb & Mboup 1997). Certain unions and relationships are considered to more stable and faithful than others. In an article entitled Haiti: Unions and Fertility, Gisele Maynard-Tucker (1996) examines the influences that different types of Haitian unions may have on the prevalence of pregnancy and contraceptive use. Maynard-Tucker describes Haitian unions as not always based on commitment; but rather primarily affected by economics, migration and the personal involvement of partners. The first union type described is the Maryaj or Marye which is a legal marriage recognized by the Catholic Church. This type of union is the most coveted because it generally involves cohabitation, stability, and high social status. Maryaj unions are rarely seen among the poor because of high costs associated with ceremonies related to this union type, and therefore are more common among Haitian elite. When a couple enters a Plasaj union they commit to an understood agreement that the husband will have a plot of land to work and the wife will keep house and bear children. Although the Plasaj union involves cohabitation and a strong sense of stability like that of Maryaj; there are two distinct differences of these unions. A stable marriage may provide a sense of security and social support for women, and unstable or polygamous relationships may put women at an increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. In Haiti, it is acceptable for men to have multiple partners while women are expected to remain monogamous. The explanation for desiring large family size is that poor people need many children to help with household chores, farming work, and in some cultures for security in old age. Still, households with many children are more likely to become poor and are less likely to recover from poverty than families with only a few children (Bernstein et al. Some researchers think that family planning promotion among poor populations will not succeed. In an article entitled, the Role of Family Planning Programs in Fertility Declines in Less Developed Countries, 1958-1977, (1981) Phillip Cutwright and William R. Those who share this conclusion argue that governments should not invest in setting up family planning programs, but should focus resources on promoting smaller families by motivating people to reduce their desired family size (Cutwright & Kelly 1981). Mayone Stycos (1964), describes the work of William Nibbling, who carried out interviews with Haitian couples to clarify their 31 attitudes toward family. Does the participant perceive a connection between numbers of children and economic status? To carry out his research, Nibbling used four photographs to depict small and large families considered to be either well-to-do (phrasing by Nibbling) or poor.

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I-Trachoma Stage 1 (Incipient Trachoma) Incipient trachoma represents the earliest stage of the disease with minimal papillary hyperplasia and immature follicles on the upper palpebral conjunctiva associated with micropannus. Sometimes, clinical signs are nonconclusive and laboratory investigations like demonstration of inclusion bodies and isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis are required to confirm the diagnosis. This classification is helpful for paramedical field workers to diagnose and manage the disease. Complications and sequelae Corneal ulceration and occasional iritis are the complications of trachoma. Trachomatous ptosis develops following dense infiltration and cicatrization of the tarsal plate of the upper lid. Differential diagnosis Trachoma should be differentiated from non- trachomatous follicular conjunctivitis. The nontrachomatous follicles preferentially develop on the lower palpebral conjunctiva and lower fornix. Out of all follicular conjunctivitis, only trachoma develops characteristic pannus. It manifests in two forms: (i) acute papillary conjunctivitis of newborn, and (ii) acute follicular conjunctivitis of children or adults. The primary source of infection appears to be a mild urethritis in males and cervicitis in females. Acute follicular hypertrophy of the lower palpebral conjunctiva, mild superficial punctate keratitis or, occasional, micropannus and preauricular lymphadenopathy are the clinical features of the disease. Improvement in the personal hygiene and chlorination of swimming pool check the local epidemics. Azithromycin 1 g in a single oral dose or ofloxacin 300 mg twice a day for 1 week is effective in controlling the infection. Systemic erythromycin 500 mg 4 times a day or doxycycline 100 mg twice a day for 2 weeks may also be used. The conjunctival lesions and corneal vascularization occur due to the release of viral proteins and other substances in the tear film. Molluscum nodules on the skin of the eyelids are small and smooth with an umblicated core. The treatment of toxic conjunctivitis due to molluscum contagiosum is by excision or cryo application to the eyelid nodule. Aqueous soluble sulfonamide (20-30%) topically and long-acting sulfonamide orally may be used. In addition to topical antibiotic therapy, administration of oral antibiotic (250 mg erythromycin or tetracycline 4 times a day or doxycycline 100 mg twice a day) for 3 weeks provides dramatic results. It is claimed that a single dose of azithromycin 20 mg per kg body weight for children and a single dose of 1-1. A six-week treatment eliminates the infection from the conjunctival sac though the follicle may Diseases of the Conjunctiva 129 not resolve. Persistent trachoma follicles were dealt with, in the past, by mechanical expression by roller forceps or by painting with copper sulphate or silver nitrate solution.

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As commonly used, in the first year about 15 pregnancies per 100 women using periodic abstinence. This means that 85 of every 100 women relying on periodic abstinence will not become pregnant. More effective Pregnancy rates with consistent and correct use vary for Less effective different types of fertility awareness methods (see table below). These rates reflect the experience of couples who volunteered to use these methods in research projects (see Question 3, p. Reliable effectiveness rates are not available for the calendar rhythm method or the basal body temperature method. In general, abstaining during fertile times is more effective than using another method during fertile times. Do not work when a couple is mistaken about when the fertile time occurs, such as thinking it occurs during monthly bleeding. Fertility Awareness Methods 293 Who Can Use Calendar-Based Methods Medical Eligibility Criteria for Calendar -Based Methods All women can use calendar-based methods. Delay means that use of a particular fertility awareness method should be delayed until the condition is evaluated or corrected. Give the client another method to use until she can start the calendar-based method. In the following situation, use caution with calendar-based methods: Menstrual cycles are irregular. F er t i l i t y A w a r enes s M et h o ds Regular cycles will return later in breastfeeding women than in women who are not breastfeeding. After miscarriage or abortion Delay the Standard Days Method until the start of her next monthly bleeding, when she can start if she has no bleeding due to injury to the genital tract. Delay starting the Standard Days Method until the start of her next monthly bleeding. If she is switching from injectables, delay the Standard Days Method at least until her repeat injection would have been given, and then start it at the beginning of her next monthly bleeding. If she has more than 2 longer or shorter cycles within a year, the Standard Days Method will be less effective and she may want to choose another method. Days 8 through 19 of every cycle are considered fertile days for all users of the Standard Days Method.

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If the abnormal heart sound(s) cannot be accurately characterized, its exact character can often be determined by obtaining a phonocardiogram (Fig 1). This procedure, although not routinely available in private practice, may be necessary to determine the exact timing or character of a murmur and the type of gallop, or in distinguishing, for example, whether a subtle sound is a gallop, split sound, or systolic click. Phonocardiography is particularly useful in small animal practice where such factors as uncooperative patients, rapid heart rates, and panting or purring decrease the sensitivity and accuracy of cardiac auscultation. Electronic digital stethoscopes, which allow the murmur to be recorded and replayed at half speed, may also employed in cases in which the character of a murmur or exact nature of an abnormal heart sound is difficult to accurately assess. Once abnormal sounds have been identified, the goal is to determine the presence, severity, and exact nature of underlying cardiac disease. This is accomplished by performing the following procedures, when indicated: thoracic radiography, electrocardiography, extended electrocardiographic (Holter) monitoring, echocardiography with or without Doppler studies, blood gas analysis, and cardiac catheterization (selective or nonselective) with oximetry, pressure measurement, and angiography. The indications for such procedures and the expected results are explored in greater detail in subsequent chapters. This timing is variable, but may require no more frequent visits than the yearly vaccination appointment. Patients with more severe afflictions (those with impending heart failure, heart failure, or potentially life-threatening arrhythmias) obviously require more frequent reevaluation. It should be emphasized that if the nature of an abnormal heart sound or the resultant diagnosis is unclear, referral to a specialist with the expertise and specialized equipment to effect a more in-depth examination and evaluation is advisable. Drug Class Review on Beta Adrenergic Blockers Final Report May 2005 the purpose of this report is to make available information regarding the comparative effectiveness and safety profiles of different drugs within pharmaceutical classes. Reports are not usage guidelines, nor should they be read as an endorsement of, or recommendation for, any particular drug, use or approach. Oregon Health & Science University does not recommend or endorse any guideline or recommendation developed by users of these reports. For adult patients with various indications, do beta blockers differ in adverse effects?. Are there subgroups for which one beta blocker is more effective or associated with fewer adverse events? Comparison of outcomes of mortality-reducing beta blockers in patients following myocardial infarction. Summary of results from placebo-controlled trials of beta blocker therapy following myocardial infarction. Main findings in placebo-controlled trials of patients with mild-moderate heart failure. Patient characteristics and annualized mortality rates adjusted for active drug run-in periods in trials of beta blockers for heart failure. Quality assessments of randomized controlled trials for coronary artery bypass graft. Quality assessments of randomized controlled trials for post myocardial infarction.

References:

  • https://bmcvetres.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s12917-014-0269-5.pdf
  • https://www.autismspeaks.org/sites/default/files/2018-08/Adult%20Tool%20Kit.pdf
  • http://www.virginiapremier.com/wp-content/uploads/PriorAuthorizationCriteriaMedallion-4.pdf
  • https://www.jtcvs.org/cms/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2020.03.038/attachment/3c2ffb39-7178-4396-bf43-c35ac31ef418/mmc2.pdf
  • https://iris.paho.org/bitstream/handle/10665.2/711/ZoonosesVol-3.pdf?sequence=1