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Nineteen trials (N=1118) provided moderate-strength evidence of lower risk of relapse between 7 and 12 months with family interventions compared with usual care (30% vs. Two small studies (N=140) provided relapse data at 5 years followup (after 15 months of intervention). One small, study (N=63) provided data at 8 years and found no difference in risk of relapse between family intervention and usual care (81% vs. Harms One small study (N=51) provided insufficient evidence on measures of family burden to determine whether family interventions reduce family burden when compared with usual care. Included studies enrolled patients with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like disorders, bipolar disorder, or depression with psychotic features. Mean age of participants enrolled in the studies ranged from 35 to 49 years, 0 to 59 percent were female, and 0 to 91 percent were nonwhite. Included interventions were explicitly described as case management; studies (or arms of studies) of assertive community treatment and home-based care were excluded. Study quality of included trials ranged from fair to good; poor-quality studies were excluded. The trial enrolled Swedish patients with diagnosed mental illness and serious functional impairment. One subsequent trial,99 which assessed quality of life using the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile, also found no difference between groups in quality of life. Given these, the primary target of this intervention is reducing the risk of relapse. We identified one fair-quality systematic review100 that examined the effect of selfmanagement education interventions compared with usual care, which was not clearly defined (Appendix Tables E-15 and F-3). This review included 13 trials (N=1404; range 23 to 125) with three trials from United States populations (N=211). Only three to five trials (N=257 to 534) reported results for each outcome of interest. The proportion of female participants ranged from 27 to 58 percent in 12 trials; one study enrolled exclusively male participants. All interventions were delivered in a group setting and the number of intervention sessions ranged from 7 to 48 sessions lasting 45 minutes to 90 minutes each. Duration of followup ranged from the time of treatment cessation to 24 months post-treatment. The percentage of participants with schizophrenia was 80 and 89 percent in the intervention and control groups, respectively.
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Rays of Hope 121 Substance Abuse For people with schizophrenia, alcoholism and other substance addiction occurs up to fifty percent more often than in the general population. Long-term alcohol abuse can lead to poor dietary habits, lack of physical activity, depression, and overall poor physical and mental condition. Alcohol is high in calories, and excessive intake means that the person is adding many empty calories (likely on a daily basis) to his/her diet. Since they are not likely to burn these extra calories off with vigorous exercise, people with schizophrenia that regularly abuse alcohol are prone to weight gain. This may in part be due to their medication, which can, in some individuals, lead to an increase in appetite. Some drugs are more likely to cause weight gain than others, so if you are bothered by excess weight, it is worth your while to discuss the matter with your physician. All antipsychotic medications that are currently available in Canada have the potential to cause weight gain. Atypical antipsychotics may cause more severe weight gain than first-generation antipsychotic drugs. The amount and rate of drug-induced weight gain depends upon the atypical antipsychotic being used. Most weight gains are in the first year of treatment, but may continue at a slower rate for several years. Weight gains caused by drug therapy range from minimal to moderate to intermediate. Of all the atypical antipsychotic drugs, ziprasidone (not yet available in Canada at the time of writing) appears to have a neutral effect on weight gain. It also creates concern because obese individuals with schizophrenia are thirteen times more likely to request discontinuation of their medication because of weight gain. While the exact cause of drug-induced weight gain is not clear, it appears the physiological impact of the atypical antipsychotics leads to appetite stimulation. Ill individuals tend to increase their caloric intake (with or without changing the composition of their diet) while taking these medications. One of the side effects of some antipsychotics can be sedation, increasing the likelihood that individuals will be less active, and therefore gain weight more easily. Some people with schizophrenia are treated with other psychotropic medications, or medications used to assist the effectiveness of antipsychotics. Also, a drug treatment plan that combines atypical antipsychotics with mood stabilizers may result in significant weight gain. For example, a combination of lithium or valproate with risperidone is reported to cause twice as much weight gain (than risperidone alone).
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The serum was obtained from one part of the body before and after short-wave irradiation. In vivo measurements conducted with human subjects and animals, an acidification also occurred, which might not be caused solely by the temperature increase. The authors believe that this acidification in the short-wave field is related to electrical and physical processes at the cell surface and cell membrane. It is known that all of these phenomena represent the expressions of the double-function of the autonomic nervous system. These -phenomena occur by the direct action of short waves on the vegetative nervous system, which take place without any participation of the sensory organs. This stimulation is due to the pronounced drop of the dielectric constant and an increase of the conductivity of body tissues in the very high frequency range. The stimulation of the ganglion cells can be explained by the fact that they are subjected to a direct flow of the high-frequency current. Thus, it can be assumed that the high-frequency energy in this case is conducted to the ganglion cells through peripheral nerves. Usually, when various physical stimuli act on the human body, these stimuli are received by the sensory organs and transformed into electrical energy forms - action currents - and these action currents are conducted to the 47 ganglia, resulting in the stimulation of the latter. Therefore, we can assume that electrical pulses r t are conducted to the ganglion cells in their original shape along the peripheral nerves. The phenomenon of a vibration of the hand in the condensor field observed by Schliephake (see p. The short-wave energy flows centripetally via peripheral nerves to the ganglia without transformation in the sensory organs and excites the ganglia. Here, a special form of reflexes appears again, which differs from the known reflexes ~y the fact that - as mentioned before - the stimulus producing the reflex (short waves) is conducted to the ganglion cells in its original form without transformation in the sensory organs. Before we turn to an investigation of these methods, we should define accurately the concepts of "dosage rate" and "dosage. Schafer, the dosage rate is the quantum of energy absorbed per unit of time in the individual treatment and the dosage is the entire quantum of energy absorbed during the entire period of treatment. Innumerable methods have been proposed, all of which were based on the abovementioned principle, but none could achieve a satisfactory solution of the dosage problem. The current is composed of the resistive current and the reactive current and the measuring instrument connected into the secondary circuit indicates only the resistive current. Therefore, the energy absorbed in the body can change extensively while deflection of the galvanometer needle remains the same.
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Anteroposterior and lateral lumbar radiographs were taken with the patients in their natural posture. Flexion and extension lumbar films were taken by asking the patient to achieve his or her maximum effort at flexion and extension in the standing position. In review of the spondylolisthesis patients, 67 (20%) patients had anterolisthesis and 46 (13%) had retrolisthesis, including 54% at L4-5 and 31% at L5-S1. Only 2 out of 342 patients had new findings on flexion/extension not visible on anteroposterior and lateral lumbar radiographs. Fifteen patients had change in degree of listhesis with flexion/extension/ anteroposterior/lateral lumbar radiograph, without any change in their Meyerding grade. The authors did not provide a specific definition for a positive diagnosis of degenerative spondylolisthesis. The facet fluid index was calculated from the ratio of the sum of the amounts of facet fluid found in the right plus left facets over the sum of the average widths of the right plus left facet joints. In critique of this study, it is unclear whether the patients included were consecutive. Segmental lumbar instability was defined as translation movement exceeding 3 mm from flexion to extension and supine to prone. A total of 75 patients had a standard lateral x-ray films in the supine position, and then in the prone position. Nineteen patients had new diagnosis of spondylolisthesis, 19 had higher grade of spondylolisthesis and 56 had no change in diagnosis. In critique, it is unclear whether the patients were consecutive and how many patients had a diagnosis of degenerative spondylolisthesis. The sample included 160 patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis and varying degrees of narrowing of the spinal canal who had undergone decompression only or decompression with instrumented fusion. A cut off value of >3% was arbitrarily chosen to represent the threshold for a real difference. Results indicated that both mean and maximum facet joint effusion were significantly greater (p = 0. According to findings, the extent of effusion correlated significantly with the relative slippage difference between standing and supine positions (r = 0. The measurement was performed three times and the mean value was calculated and used for analysis in this study. Tokuhashi et al8 analyzed the utility of the treadmill provocation test in evaluating clinical lumbar instability. A total of 82 patients were included in the study, including 18 degenerative spondylolisthesis patients, 17 herniated lumbar disc patients, 10 isthmic spondylolisthesis patients and 37 canal stenosis patients.
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On 1 year follow-up, clinical outcomes for both groups were identical, however, patients from the microscopically assisted group had a faster postoperative mobilization (mean 12 hours) as compared to the standard group (mean 36 hours). In the microscopically assisted group no cases of permanent or transitory ileus was ever observed while in the standard group a mean of 30 hours was needed before the bowels function Biomechanics/Basic Science 80 Biomechanical Comparison of Cervical Disc Replacement and Fusion Using Bi-level and Hybrid Constructs: A Finite Element Study 1 A. Methods: A previously validated specimen-specific 3D finite element model of the cervical spine (C2-T1; Figure1A)  was modified to simulate moderate degeneration at levels C5-C6 and C6-C7 . The degenerative model was then altered to accommodate the three surgical procedures outlined below: Bi-level Fusion Model: A fusion at C5-C6 and C6-C7 was modeled by changing the material properties of the intervertebral disc to that of bone . Thereafter, the degenerative and three surgical models were analyzed by increasing the moment until the motion (C2-T1) matched that of the healthy model. However similar results concerning stabilization and reduction of the fracture are promoted. Methods: Twelve human osteoporotic bisegmental spine specimens were divided into two groups, each consisting of 3 x T9-11 and 3 x T12-L2 segments. The Range of Motion (RoM in Flexion/Extension (Ex/Flex), lateral bending and rotation (Rot)) was measured with a spine tester; the height of the vertebral body was assessed radiologically. After cyclic loading a significant rise in RoM was seen (Ex/Flex: 399/416 %, lateral bending: 241/252 %, rotation: 257/263 %), largest in the first 20. Therefore both methods seem equal concerning stabilization and height restoration. As compared to the healthy model, each model predicted a decrease in motion at the modified (i. During flexion/extension the bi-level fusion exhibited a 98% decrease in motion at the fused levels which was accompanied by a 61% increase in adjacent segment motion. EurSpineJ, 2009 81 Biomechanical Evaluation of Balloon-kyphoplasty and Radiofrequency-kyphoplasty in a Bisegmental Osteoporotic Human Spine Model H. Shin2 1 Hurisarang Spine Hospital, Neurosurgery, Daejeon, Korea, Republic of, 2College of Medicine, Chosun University, Neurosurgery, Gwangju, Korea, Republic of Questions? However, there are technical limitations with multi-level procedures via the percutaneous technique, especially when using axis guidance. This method uses an percutaneous transpedicular screw fixation system with rimmed screw heads and is characterized by the combined use of the vertical axis guidance and a detachable extender. Under epidural anesthesia, decompression underwent via a trans-facet approach and screws were inserted into paraspinal route after subdermal paraspinal dissection. To evaluate the surgical results, we assessed the epidural anesthesia, operation time, intra-operative blood loss, midline skin incision and procedure-related complications. Procedure-related complications included two cases of asymptomatic medial penetration of the pedicle border, two cases of dural tear, one case of deep wound infection, and two cases of screw pull-out.
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It is much more likely that the chronic chest pain is due to weakened soft tissue, such as a ligament or tendon. If heart and lung tests prove normal, yet the patient claims to still be experiencing pain, the patient is often given a psychiatric diagnosis. If depressed people complain of shoulder pain, most likely they have shoulder pain. Chronic pain should be assumed to be originating from a weakened soft tissue, such as a ligament or tendon. But the most descriptive and accurate name for the actual etiological basis of the condition is slipping rib syndrome. The loose ribs can also pinch intercostal nerves, sending excruciating pains around the chest into the back. Likewise, costovertebral ligament sprains refer pain from the back of the rib segment to the sternum where the rib attaches. Injury to either the costochondral or sternocostal junctions will Slipping rib syndrome is give rise to slipping rib syndrome. Most often, the tenth rib is the source because, unlike ribs one through seven which attach to the sternum, the eighth, ninth, and tenth ribs are attached anteriorly to each other by loose, fibrous tissue. Humans breathe 12 times per minute, 720 times per hour, 19,280 times per day, which stresses these ligamentous-rib junctions. A simple coughing attack due to a cold may cause the development of slipping rib syndrome. Conditions such as bronchitis, emphysema, allergies, and asthma cause additional stress to the sternocostal and costochondral junctions. Another cause of slipping rib syndrome is the result of surgery to the lungs, chest, heart, or breast, with resection of the lymph nodes, which puts a tremendous stress on the rib attachments because the surgeon must separate the ribs to remove the injured tissue. Chronic chest pain, especially in young people, is often due to weakness in the sternocostal and costochondral junctions. Prolotherapy, by strengthening these areas, provides definitive results in the relief of the chronic chest pain or chronic upper-back pain from slipping rib syndrome. In other words, when the shoulder is actively raised over the head (the person does it themselves) the symptoms of pain and/or numbness down the arms occur, however, when the exact same movement is done passively (by another person) the symptoms do not occur. This type of symptomatology is a perfect description of ligament and tendon weakness (laxity). The injured ligament and tendon give localized and referral pain when doing strenuous movements, but when someone else takes the brunt of the force, no such symptoms occur. Furthermore, surgically slicing structures to give the nerve more room will not eliminate the symptoms the person is having and could, quite possibly, cause more problems. This joint instability can occur where the ribs that attach to the thoracic spine, causing a rib to stick out too far. For those with snapping scapula syndrome, the great news is that once the instability is identified, Prolotherapy is an excellent curative treatment for this condition.
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In a study published in 1983, a group of researchers polled over 1,500 people whose daily intake of lysine was over 900 mg. An important recently discovered therapeutic use of phenylalanine is its ability to overcome most conditions of lethargy through stimulation of adrenaline. Studies indicate that the free form of histidine in the blood is low in cases of rheumatoid arthritis and if taken orally, may possibly depress the symptoms of this ailment. Oral histidine has, however, a tendency to stimulate hydrochloric acid secretion in the stomach and persons who are susceptible to an overabundance of acid and also those who have ulcers should avoid taking pure histidine. It is one of the mainstays of health as it is essential for the proper formation of skin and helps one recover from surgery. Richard Wurtman who recently conducted experiments on the use of this amino acid says: " Supplemented tyrosine may be useful therapeutically in persons exposed chronically to stress. Research has established this amino acid to be effective in the management and control of depression in conjunction with glutamine, tryptophan, niacin and vitamin B6. Williams, a world-known nutritionist, glutamine reduces the usually irresistible craving for alcohol that recovering drinkers almost inevitably encounter. He considers that there is link between obesity and over-production of insulin and that cysteine supplements taken along with vitamin C at the end of the meals somehow neutralises some of the excess insulin, which is responsible for fat production. Children who do not get the required amounts of amino acids in their daily diet suffer from. On the other hand, those getting the full quota of amino acids in their diet will be rewarded with vigor, vitality and long life. It has also been observed that the diseases of old age can be largely prevented if elderly persons obtain the proper food supplements of amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Digestion is not merely chemical or physical process, but also a physiological one. When food enters the body, it undergoes several changes before it is broken down into its constituent parts and assimilated. But no food can be assimilated by the system and used by various organs unless it has first been digested and then absorbed in the digestive system known as alimentary canal, while the residue, unfit for absorption is eliminated from the system. The juices alternate between alkalies and acids, and their character is determined by the requirement of the enzymes they contain. These enzymes remain active in suitable media of well defined acid-alkaline ranges and are destroyed in unsuitable media. For instance, the salivary amylase ( ptyalin ) or starch-splitting enzyme of the mouth is active only in an alkaline media and is destroyed by a mild acid. This generally means eating similar foods at one time in order to accomplish the most complete digestion. Although every food contains some protein, those regarded as protein concentrated foods demand the longest digestive time. Animal-food proteins, such as meats, fish and cheese, require very high concentration of hydrochloric acid.